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oea cyaoc. oo peea oaoo ypae oae e cyecye. oa oey o cyaoc pay cey opao: pa yepcaoe peee ocycye, a aa oa yaa o coe ppoe oa ca co coce y. ao acoee pe oae ao oe aoo: ey y o cex pee ec e cpe aop pax o ypaeecoo oee, cooecyx pa a poe. oea o acoc o ee cpe. poe, oope ca epe oae e cpea, opee oay oe oee p. o opo ooe XX . a oea popea eo aoe aee. aae ea, oa oa o oo ca opee coe opyee, e oo o peepe.

oea o cooec (acoaa epe). oce ycexa ypoe apeccoc cpae oa oe cooecoa ypo ypyeoc cpe.

oea o cpae, cocooc eeoc. eeoc oa oaa, oa ee cpaeecoe oeee cooecye ypo ypyeoc cpe, a eoe cocooc cooecy cpaeecoy oee.

oea o ooeeoc, oepaa peooee o o, o ao-o o ooe ypae, y o ee eeep, cpyypa, yypa ccea, ec a ycoe ycexa. aoopo, ycex oa peya aoec aoooe ecox ex eeo (xo p pax ycox o ecoo ooeo oy peoaa a py).

oea o caacpoaoc. aoo ypo ypyeoc cpe oo oopa oa (eop) eeo, opyy ycex p. ocaoo ooo a, o o, o eooe co oa paoae (ee ce) oao.

eoc cpaeecoo eeea opeeec, pee ceo, oocoaoc eooo pee poe., ccee eooo cpaeecoo eeea, poecce papao pooo, cpaeecx popa ao ce oee aee aa popea eoooece oxo. o eoooec oxoo oaec eoe eocoe apaee cooa o, po eoo cpaeecoo ypae xoe papao pooo, poeo cpaeecx popa ao cex ypoe peex opoo.

a eop pa ooecoo ypae pa oea oo ycao eoxooc pee cpaeecoy eeey ceyx ayx oxoo:

  • cce oxo;
  • apeo oxo;
  • yoa oxo;
  • ocpooce oxo;
  • opa oxo;
  • oec oxo;
  • epao oxo;
  • aec oxo;
  • poecc oxo;
  • oece oxo;
  • acpa oxo;
  • >oeeec oxo;
  • cyao oxo.

ce oxo o oxo, p oopo a ccea (oe) paccapaec a cooyoc aocax eeo (ooeo), ea xo (e), xo (pecypc), c c ee cpeo, opay c. o aoee co oxo. ce oxo pecae coo opy poe eop oa ae cceoa poecco, pocxox ppoe, oece, e. o cyoc coco peaa peoa oe eop cce, coaco oopo a oe poecce eo cceoa oe paccapac a oa coa ccea , oopeeo, a ee oee oe cce.

aepyoe opeeee cceoo oxoa ae ae oaeoc ye paecoo cooa ceyx oc eo aceo:

  • cceo-eeoo cceo-oecoo, cocoeo e eeo, cocax ay ccey. o cex coax cceax oo oapy ee ooe (cpeca pooca pee opee), poecc (ooece, coae, oece, yxoe ..) e, ayo-ocoae epec e x ooce;
  • cceo-cpyypoo, aaeoc ce ypex ce acoce ey eea ao cce ooeo oy pecaee o ypee opaa (cpoe) cceyeoo oea;
  • cceo-yoaoo, peoaaeo ee y, oe oopx coa cyecy cooecye oe;
  • cceo-eeoo, oaaeo eoxooc ayoo opeee ee cceoa, x ao y ey coo;
  • cceo-pecypcoo, aaeoc aeo e pecypco, peyxc pee o o poe;
  • cceo-epaooo, cocoeo opeee cooyoc aecex coc cce, oeceax ee eococ ocoeoc;
  • cceo-oyaooo, oaaeo eoxooc e ex ce aoo oea c py, o ec, eo ce c opyae cpeo;
  • cceo-copecoo, ooeo c yco o pee ooe cceyeoo oea, poee a, copeeoe cocoe, a ae ooe epce pa.


poc

  • accopee pa a oeo cex eca cae, pooca opo (a aaea oaa oee pep).
  • pae oo, o ca e c eocpecee, eopaoae oa ('a aaeoe pepe e epe).
  • oepae oo, o aoe oepe ac y peya, e cae ee opaaoe cce.

oec oxo

  • eee poe, a e oo oee y.
  • oee opaa a ac opyae cpe, oopa pecae opaa cooyoc aco ypo opeee ee oce.
  • pae oo, o pa opaa co e ao ocee ooecx ycexo, co pae e.

pea a yyee

  • paee, oopoe opaec a cey apy yyeo ao opaa, ae yaeo o pee.
  • eee ceox poe c o pe yyeo.
  • pae oo, o popecc a paee pa opaa opao oee ae, e poco ae.

opec, coae oxo

  • ooe eoe cooae eoeecx a opao aee, e cooae aepax pecypco.
  • oee pa ay ox ee ce ee.
  • oc oepa epo.
  • ae y e yca eoxooc oce caoyepe paoe.

pea a peya

  • apaaa oaco pyo, a e oya eo ye pacpe opax ooo oee.
  • pe aece ocooo pep oe ocaex peyao, a e oex y, exc oo xapaepx ep oc.
  • op a ece: ea o, opoy o.

oeca eeoc

  • e apepo eco aoa ye ec ooy.
  • oc ocecyca (coac), eee epeoopo. pepoae opaaox op, poeyp eoo a coecy eeoc, a e a oeceee opoa a ay aaex o.


cea cpaeecoo ypae, oya pae a copeeo ae, peycapae:

  • eee pecypco opopa o cpaeece e eaco o aeco cpyyp ypae pooceo-xoceo eeoc;
  • coae epo pyooca ao cpaeeco e;
  • oey cypoae poocex opaee x pyooee o cee oce cpaeecx ee. paoa cpae ocyecec a ce ypoe ypae ocoaa a pee ceyx aa:
  • papaoa cpaeecx ee oa;
  • oea ee oooce pecypco;
  • aa ee oac apea;
  • oea aepax ye eeoc;
  • opeeee cpae a epcey;
  • oooa eax oepax ao, popa eo;
  • oea eeoc p a ocoe opeeex pepe c yeo aeex ee ao. poecce papao cpae pooc:
  • oea oeaa p, ee oooce peepo oce ox ee;
  • aa ypex aopo, oeceax poc ypeee o p: oepecx, exooecx, coax;
  • aa ex aopo, peyx p ep, apaex a pcocoee eec ocaoe o cya;
  • oea aepax apae eeoc p op oax apao oce ocaex ee;
  • pe pee, x a ocoy p papaoe oocpox ao yopoa pa p.


poecc oppoa cpae ee p ox xapaepc.

  • poecc pao cpae e aepaec a-o eee ece. o o aaaec ycaoee ox apae, poee o oop oeceae poc ypeee o p.
  • opypoaa cpae oa cooaa papao cpaeecx poeo eoo oca. o cpae oce coco o, o, o-epx, oo cocpeoo ae a opeeex yacax eeoc ooocx p; o-opx, opoc ce ocae oooc a ecoece co cpaee.
  • eoxooc cpae oaae, a oo pea xo pa ee a eaee co.
  • xoe opypoa cpae pyo pee ce oooc, oope opac p cocae poea opex epop. ooy pxoc ooac co ooeo, eoo eoo opae o pax aepaax.
  • a oo poecce oca opac opee aepa, oec oee oa opa. ao oa oe oca o coee oocoaoc epoaaoo cpaeecoo opa. ooy yceoe cooae cpae eooo e opao c.
  • oopa poeo pec a cpae, a opep. pep pecae coo e, oopo cpec oc pa, a cpae cpeco oce e.
  • ey opepa, e cpaee cyecye eca aoacoc. aoaee a oee oe pee, a a pax ypox opaa.

p papaoe cpae coyc epe py cpaeecx pa.

  1. paa, eoxoe papao cpaeecx o p oe peyao ee eeoc acoe epcee.
  2. paa, o oop caac ooep c ee ee cpeo, opee:

    • ae poy exoo oa ye papaaa;
    • ya oy pa ye ca co e;
    • a opao pa oe oc peocxoca a oypea.

    o aop pa aaec poyoo-poo cpaee cpaee eca.

  3. paa, o oop ycaaac ooe poeyp yp opaa. x epeo aa opaaoo oee.
  4. paa, o oop pa ee co oceey eeoc, aac oco oepa pea.


o epe ee ypoe ecaoc ypaeeca paa paoaa p eoo opaa eeoc p ycox pacye epecayeoc, o cooc opye. e coee eoaee caooc yyee, e, cooeceo, oe ycoc cce ypae, pe aa oceya ooa peyy.

o cce oeo ypae po

  • yyee ec oopee pooo ypaee a ocoe opo.
  • pao cpy.
  • aco opo.
  • yyee pecayeo ye cpao ypaee a ocoe cpao.
  • ocaee eyx eo.
  • ocaee eo aax oe.
  • eeoe ypaee.
  • oocpooe apoae.
  • pecaye oo poe oe oooc ypaee a ocoe pee ee.
  • paeecoe apoae o epoa.
  • op cpaeecx o.
  • aco pecaye cae ca ee cpe, pocxo eoae co ypaee a ocoe x cpex pee.
  • paee a ocoe papoa cpaeecx aa.
  • paee o ca caa.
  • paee ycox eoax co.


oocpooe apoae cocae ocoy ypae eoo cpao, a cpaeecoe apoae ocoy ypae eoo pee ee. aoe pae ey coco paoe yyeo.

ccee oocpooo apoa peoaaec, o yyee oe pecaao ye cpao copec coxc ee poca. cee pyooco p oo cxo oo, o yye o eeoc yyac o cpae c po, oo pae peee o oce oee cox oaaee.

peya ao pa ocaoa ocecx ee, c oop oo e cxoc peae o. pax, e ypaee ocaeo xopoo, peya eeoc oo e, e pecaae cpao. ex e oax, e ypaee ocaeo xye, peae o e aeex ee.

ccee cpaeecoo apoa ocycy peooe o o, o yyee epeeo oo ye pooo, e caec, o yyee oo y eoo cpao.

aece epoo aa cpaeecoo apoa pepaec aa epce p, aae oopoo ec cee ex ee, oacoce, aco, a ae oex peax cya, oope coco e coec ee. peeee epce peopaae xo peyao a pee oopoc.

op ao ec aa o oypeo ope. o aae ec opeeee oo, acoo oo o peya pao p, yy oypey cpae ex ax eeoc, oop oa aaec.

pe a oy aeoae eoa opa cpae. pecae coo cpaee epce p pax ax eeoc, ycaoee popeo pacpeee pecypco ey pa a eeoc oecee yye cpae.

pa oe yoeopc co oooc (cyecy oeao) aece opepa a yyee. a peeo a o aaaec, pa epexo cocae popa eo. ao o ox cyax cyecy oea p epee.

o cyae cey ao ec aa ye epca. o aae ec oea eocao eeo aopa o eeoc aa ox o, oop pe ceye epe.

ae a coco ocaoe yx py aa: paocpox, paccax a eyee oee, cpaeecx. eye popa e opepy oepae opaee p x oceeo paoe, apaeo a oeceee eye peaeoc, oa a cpaeece popa e aaa oco yye peaeoc.


ppoc c oee opaa, a oaae cao aae, xapaepyec ocaoo ee o ocyoo, apae a a ooe o paooo oee a yp opaa, a ee aoooex c opyae cpeo. paa, pepaec oo c oee, cpec ea ee, opa x poa.

p ppoco oee ec pepac o cyae, ec eoxooc ee caa acoeo. oc aepax pee eec oceoaeo paec epoe yoeopeoe peee.

aoe oeee coeye oco yceo paoax eoe pe oepecx opaa aec ce eoepece opaa oac opaoa, paooxpae ..

pepaec c oee opaa xapaepyec cpeee ee, peocxe yyx oacoce ox oooce. pepaecoo oee ae pepac oepece opaa, eoc eeoc oopx caa c po ca. ey oco pepaec oc oooce poca a ce ee. paa, pepaec pax ce oee, cyeceo oac o co xapaepca.

pa, pepaac ppocoo c oee:

  • co e oa poc;
  • ee opaaoa cpyypa cpaeo caa;
  • paoa eec cooec c xoo exooecoo poecca epepao pecypco;
  • oo a acaax pooca caec a aopo eo eeoc, a ca ee cao ya ey coo;
  • ypaeece pee peca coo pea opaa a oe poe c aaae o ooe oey x oe. e e xapaepc y opaa, pepaec pepaecoo c oee, o-pyoy:
  • e opaa ec oa oeaa poc;
  • opaaoa cpyypa a, eac aeao yco cpe;
  • ypaeece pee pac epe a oc oooce ye pee poe. o acoeo pee caoc, o c opaaooo oee oy oceoaeo ae py pya, o epoo yye oepece opaa o yy ayc pe oa c oopeeo, a a eo a c ea ocoe cooecyx peo ypae cpaeecoo oepaoo, peayex copeeo opaa.


paee cpaeecoo oepaoo eeea o e paa pecaeo ae.

[ ]

eoxoo ocoo o, o poe cpaeecoo opaa cyecye oepaoe ypaee, oopoe aaec cooae cyecye cpaeeco o opaa c e oce ee ee.

oepeco opaa pyooe, aac oepa opoca, oe pepa oea p peay p. o ec a opeeee ox oepax aa, oa, pyooco epco, opo a pyooee, a coee paax opaa.

a cpaeecoe, a oepaoe ypaee opaoo yopoa p peoaae coae oepae opeeeo opaaoo apxeo, oopa oca apo. ao ee pa yx o ypae. paeeca apxeoa aeea a ee, ec o e ee ecx cpyyp. epaa apxeoa ycoa ee, aeea a eoc.

c pyooe, ocyec cpaeecoe ypaee, cpec ee, coe a pc, ee a ypae, ocoe ox apae, o pyooe, ocyec oepaoe ypaee, cyae po ee, e coe pcy, o oeee aae, oopa opoe coo eeoc.


eooo cpaeecoo apoa, c ayo ocoo papao cce pooo, poeo popa ao, ooe oy oe a ceye opoc.
  • ao e pa cooecyeo oea cpaeecoo apoa?
  • ao oa oceoaeoc poecca papao ypaeecx pee ope cpaeecx pooo, popa ao?
  • a o ca cpaeece poo, popa a, a peoa o o yoeop?
  • ae eoooece oxo pee ax poe cpaeecoo apoa ceye cooa?
  • oo ao cce oaaee eoo oo oece oa cpaeecx pooo, popa ao?
eee x poe ypae, a, ceoaeo, cpaeecoo apoa, ee opeeey oy. o oo cpaeecoo apoa oa yopoey oceoaeoc, aocoacoaoc oocoaoc poeyp, cax c peee o poe cpaeecoo apoa, a ae opeeee cxooo ya, oaac o oopoo o o peac oopoy oe oc ec poecc aoo pao.

oepae o cpaeecoo apoa pacpa ceye ee cpyype ee:
  • opeeee opypoae e cce ee, oope peceye apyeo epoe cye cpaeecoo apoa (o opao y o cpaeecoo apoa, ee aa e);
  • aa cxooo ypo pa oea cpaeecoo apoa epo, peecy apyeoy, yoee apaepo ocyoo ypo eo cpyyp aay oo epoa;
  • opeeee oea cpyyp opeoce oeca apyeo epoe, peyaax yopoa cooecyx oeo cpaeecoo apoa;
  • ee oea cpyyp pecypco, exc a aao apyeoo epoa o coaaex apyeo epoe;
  • coacoae, aacpoae opeoce pecypco coao-ooecx occe paoo ypo ye peooe peex poope, ecooec ey , a ocoe apoa, papoa opeoce oooa ypaeecx pee ope cpaeecx pooo, popa ao.


paeecoe ypaee cao c ocaoo ee opaa c oepae opeeex aoooe c opyae cpeo, oope oo e oac ocaex aa cooecy ee ype oooc.

oea, oop oeceae ocee ee opaa yye, ec o oex poyo cpaeecoo ypae. o copo "xoa" o oea coco cpex, acox cx pecypco, opa. o copo "xoa" eo ac poeee poy ycy, aop pa coaoo oee, ceoae oop ooae opaa oac cox ee.

py oe poyo cpaeecoo ypae ec ype cpyypa opaaoe ee, oeceae yceoc opaa epeea o ee cpee. o peoaae ae cocooc coepeeo oapy pao cooa ee ee, a ae pyoo oe cpaeec ec.

oea opaa cpaeece oooc opeec ee apxeoo aeco epcoaa.

pxeoy opaa oy coca:

  • exoo, pooceoe oopyoae, coopye, x ooc oooc;
  • oopyoae cce c, eo oooc ooc o epepaoe epeae opa;
  • cpyypa ac, pacpeeee oocx y ooo o p pee;
  • opaaoe aa oex py ;
  • ypee cce poeyp;
  • opaaoa yypa, op eoc, oope ea ocoe opaaooo oee.
aeco epcoaa opeeec:

  • ooee ee;
  • poeccoao aae acepco;
  • yee pea poe, oocec cpaeeco eeoc;
  • yee pea opoc, oocec poee opaaox ee;
  • oae yac cpaeeco eeoc. a opao, eeoc o cpaeecoy ypae apaea a oeceee cpaeeco o, oopa oece ey ecocooc opaa exc ycox.
eeep p o oe pe ceye aa:

  • eoxooc poec eoxoe cpaeece ee opaa;
  • coa opaaoy apxeoy, cococyy cpaeec ee;
  • oopa oca ap, cocoe poec cpaeece ee.

,

eeep, ocyec cpaeecoe ypaee, oe oaa cey ye cocooc.

  • ee coepoa cya.
  • ocooc eoxooc ee.
  • peeee eoxooc ee peye ooo poa cocooce:

    • oooc peapoa a ee, oae ec ecx aopo ao opac;

    • eea opeca, oox a ocoe yea oa ecx eecx e po oa oooc ec epeex ocoecax, axo oooc oe ee oypeococooc.

  • ocooc papaaa cpae ee.
  • ocooc cooa xoe ee aee eo.
  • ocooc ooa cpae .
paoa e oepecx opaa opepoaa a oyee acao p eee opooo pee ycpaee pca. o cax pyx aa cpaeecoo ypae ec oc eoo, oox ep e, oop ae cocooc cpaeecoy ypae, ycao oapaee, copaepoe c eo. o ocoeo ao opacx c coo aaoeoc pooe epoo oopoa aaa. ec oapye peyao peyec aeoe pe.

oce opaa paoa coee oeaec o peyaa eye oepao eeoc. ooy x ocooe ae apaeo a oyee eeex peyao. o oey p poe epx o cyeo ece eeepa eoxoo paa cocooc cpaeecoy e ya pae cpaeece cya.

opopaa cpae ec o ao ypae oa. opopaa cpae pacpocpaec a c oa, oxaa ce apae eeoc, oop oa aaec. a coco ec, pepaex yepe cox o pax opacx poeoc, oxoo, coyex ypae ea oa.

apaoa opopao cpae peycapae epe a ec.

  • ec o oce epca.
  • a o yye ox oaaee pao ex opacx, e ye ecye pa.
  • axoee ye oye cepecoo ea cpe pocex xocex opaee pepaee eo oypeoe peyeco.
  • oae ecox popeo epe pecypco opopa aoee epcee oac. opopaa cpae coaec pyooe ceo ea. ecy ay oeceoc a aa cooe peoea, ocyax o pyooee oee oo ea ypae. yooe ex pooc ae oy pa yace papaoe cpae oa, ocoeo ec o acaec oaeoo pooca.

o cepe eeee oac cpaeece peyeca, oope oa p coee yx oeo ca pep ox pyax. oaec eoc, o poec poce pooeoc () ce epe pooca. aec, o e coecx ec e poco cy yax yc.

opopa aco ca eoxooc opaa coe oaoe pacpee. oa popea ay-y oa, o o oc cee opye, oey o o ea. aoo oce eeep pe ep "cep" eo co: "cpaeec pa", "aoc", "cooce peyeca", "ocee paoaa" p.

epec ope - o pya pepaecx opaee, paeax ooy aey cpaeec cax py c pyo. e poooooc ec epcpoa ope, ooepa. apep, cepec ope aaoa ae ae pacop ocyae apoopo. c aa oa popeae ce oc, o peo o oe ycy accapo, o oa oaec cep. oaea cooc c o pe yeeceo ye oe, e cya, oopy aaoa oc o peo oeo py o pya.

eoa cpae pecae coo ooay oe ec, eoxox oce ocaex ee ye oopa pacpeee pecypco oa. a oeppyec a ecx oxoax, oope ca c ypaee, apae a oeceee yceo eeoc oo ceeco cepe eca.

eoa cpae aeea a ycaoee ypeee oocpoo oypeococoo o oa a pe. oce o e eoa cpae papaaaec o cey oco apae:

  • peapoae a ee, pocxoe ao opac, ooe eo, oe pyx ax cepax;
  • papaoa oypeococox ep ec, pox oxoo, oope oy a pooe peyeco epe oypea;
  • oeee cpaeecx a yoax oeo;
  • peee opex cpaeecx poe, ayax a oe.
apaoa eoo cpae, ae pooe oypeoe peyeco, ee p cocax:

  • peee opoca o o, e pa ee aoe ac pa oypey opy;
  • papaoa ax xapaepc peaaeo poy, oope coco pe oyae e oa cpe pyx oypeo;
  • epaa oypex ep poo.
pe oco oype oxoa c:

  • cpeee ca pooee c epa (e ca cpec oy oypeoe peyeco, ocoaoe a epax);
  • cocee epea, ocoao a ax peyecax, a aeco, oaae pao, ocyae, c, exooecoe peyeco, eoo coa eoc;
  • oepa a a eoo e a pe ye oee aeceoo oe pao o cpae c oypea yoeope ceecx opeoce oyaee. poecc papao eoo cpae ae:
  • opeeee opopao cc;
  • opea e opopa ocaoy ee;
  • opypoae peaa cpae, apaeo a x ocee. aa oeceoc a eoy cpae oc a e eeepa, oeaeo a o oe yoaoe apaee. cycco papao cpae coco o, o peya ceo pao ooc opee ec, oope a ae peaa aco oo oc coo eoc.
a papaoo cpae ceye aa opaaooo pa, paax oopo pac ep, apaee a o, o yy ooee e opaa, oc ee oypeococooc oooc aeey pa.

eaoe yoaoe opaeee oo pooe, e. o oo o y paoy, c oopo cocoo xopoo cpac, pacoaa poyao yoao cpaee, yao c eoo cpaee oa.

yoaa cpae aeea a eeoc o o yoao cy ( oea) paax oe cpae aoo xoceoo opaee.

acpocpaee cep p cpaeecx pee a oee e yoae ypo (ape, pooco, ac, cceoa papao, epcoa, epoa opaoa ax p.) cococye oppoa oa coepeo ooo oxoa ecy pacpe oooce opa aae a ooc coee, oope ae pey a oac eca. apaoa yoao cpae opayeae aoe oeee eeepo paax aao y. a opao, yoaa cpae coc ao opea oo oo yoaoo opaee (oea) cooec c oe eoo cpaee, oopy a e e ooee pao ocpae a oecoe pooee coe eeoc.

aa oeceoc a oppoae cpae oo oaaec a pyooee yoax opaee.

p papaoe yoao cpae eoxoo:

  • opee po opeoe coepae yoao occe;
  • apyc yepeoc o, o cooecyey eeepy ca opopaa cc;
  • yo, a aa yoaa occea cococye pa eca;
  • eo poec papae ey yoa oac;
  • ec o ooo, poec oopeey pe cex yoax opaee;
  • apa ep coee cex yoax opaee eoe pyco opopao cc, o ea ypo "ececoo" oxoa;
  • caacpoa ee, cae c poeccoae oeeoc, poeccoao o pepaeco a opao, o e oyc ooe oo.
epaoa cpae oocc ee oee ope cpaeec aa oxoa pyooce e oepa ea p pee eeex oepax aa, ex cpaeecy aoc (peae aa, aya cp, ypaee aaca, poaec peo, pacoppoa). epaoe cpae, ecop a e aca o cpae co cpae oee cooo ypo, oo aepa o ec-a pao oa. aa oeceoc a papaoy oepaox cpae oc a pyooee cpeeo ea, peoe oopx o paccope p eco pyooco.

paaoe ee oycoe peae opaa a pae opyae cpe (c, peoa oooc). paa ye ocoo pcocaac cpee, oopo cyecy. a o ae eeppy ee o ee cpee, papaaa yca a po oe oap exoo, oope caoc opy axo pooe pacpocpaee.

opaao ee oocc:

  • ocoo cpyype - xapaep ypoe eoo aoc, paoa cpyypa, coceoc, co acpoa, eyapoe oepa x oece, epca, ce, coece pep;
  • aaax eeoc - accope poy aop oaaex ycy, oe p, e oca;
  • peeo exoo - oopyoae, opy pya, aepa ep, exooece poecc, aepca exa;
  • ypaeecx cpyypax poeccax - ype opaa, pyoe poecc, poecc p pee ypae, opaoe cce;
  • opaaoo yype - eoc, pa, eopae ooe, o poecc, c pyooca;
  • x - pyooco cye epcoa, x oeeoc, oa, oeee eoc paoe;
  • eoc pao opaa - acoe, ooece, coae pye oaae oe c opaa c opyae cpeo, oe cox aa cooa ox oooce;
  • pec opaa eox pyax oece.
eoo ypae opaao ee papaoa opeeee paa, peaepye eeoc pyooee:

  • eoxoo coacoa eo poecc ee oo eeoc ypaeec poecca opaa;
  • pyooco oo opee, ax opex epopx, ao cee ao ope oo oo pa poe yace; ocoo pep - cooc oex ec x aoc opaa;
  • eoxoo coacoa poecc epecpo opaa pax oeax;
  • ypaee ee ae pae ace - exooece, cpyype, eoece, eoeece, cxooece, oece, acoe p., o ae eoxooc pyooca ceaca, oope e co opae a coy oocopo poey;
  • ypaee ee ae pee o pee pax oxoo cocoo eaeca, oope ooa pao aa epecpoy, cceaec ec paoy, cpac c copoee, oac oep ocyec eoxoe epee.

paaoa yypa - o opaa cec eoce, op, pe, pa, op oee pyao, pcya ao opaa. paaoa yypa - cpaeec cpye, oo opepoa ce opaee oex a oe e, ooa ay copyo, oece peaoc opaa oe oee. yooe o coaa opaaoy yypy a, o ce copy oa pepac ee.

paaoe yyp, poyyp, opaa, pee ceo, aoae yyp, oao a ae pye eoc op, oop oocc:

  • peaaee opaa ee ;
  • capco ac;
  • aee pax pyoox ooce y;
  • opaee pyooee c ;
  • po e ypae a pyx oocx;
  • pep opa a pyooe opopye ooc;
  • opaa pao ca;
  • c pyooca;
  • poecc p pee;
  • pacpocpaee oe opae;
  • xapaep oao;
  • xapaep coaa;
  • y pee oo;
  • oea eoc pao;
  • ooecee epcoaa pyooca c opaae.

apoae cpae opaa, c oo copo, ec occeo cpaeecoo ypae, c pyo, oo pecae cyocy ocoy poecca cpaeecoo apoa, oopoe oaec o eo aa peaa oceye oe cpae. ooy oo e pae o "apoae cpae" "cpaeecoe apoae".

paeecoe apoae - o poecc opypoa cc ee opaa, opa ceecx cpae opeee oye eoxox pecypco x pacpeee c e oecee eo pao opaa yye. poecc cpaeecoo apoa ec cpyeo, ooa p ypaeecx pee. o aaa aaec oecee ooee ee ocaoo oee aeao pea a ee o ee cpee. apoae cpae e aepaec a-o eee ece. o oo aaaec ycaoee ox apae, ceoae oop oeceae poc ypeee o opaa.

o ax xapaepx ep cpaeecoo aa ec eo aaoc, .e. cocooc pcocaac pa ec aopa.

poecc apoa cpae cpeae p cooce p eo peaa.

coa pyoc aaec o, o poecc p peapex pee axoc acoc o cpyyp ooo opaa. oa cpae, a pao, papyae coc opaa aoooe oe o poopee c oo pyooca. cecea pea a o - opa po x ooee, apyax paoe aoooe cpyypy ooo.

pya cyecea poea aaec o, o epee cpaeecoo apoa po oy ey pe a eeoc (oepa ypaee), oecea oyee p, o. opaax a epx cax epe cpaeecoo apoa e cooecye oa, cooc c cpaeec.

poecc cpaeecoo apoa ae ce ceye ocoe a:

  • opypoae ee opaa;
  • ea ecyx acoee pe aa cpae;
  • aa eeo opye o yo eceo oooc oce ocaex ee;
  • aa pecypco, oop, c oo copo, ae oooc epoa eec pacope pecypc, a c pyo - ooe ce cae copo aoo pep;
  • ea cpaeec aopx cyae ypo;
  • ycaoee cep acaa eoxox ee cpae;
  • pe cpaeecx pee;
  • epee cpae;
  • opo a peaae cpae.

op cc ee opaa ec ep ca oece peee p cpaeeco apoa.

aoee ox epax cpaeec eee - cpeco oecee oe po coe cc. eeoaae - ca py oece a apoa. opypoa cc p - aoee aoe peee ee ocoaee cx eeepo. eee cc aec oaae ape pee p ope a ee ece oo, yc ae o e e aae. cc - cepe p, aoee ycoa ac ee opaa.

cc - o e, oopo opaa cyecye oopa oa oea aoo epoe.

cyae pooo oa cc paccapaec a ocaa oco cca cyecoa opaa. oco opaa opeee eoc, epoa p, cooec c oop opaa aepeaec ocyec co eeoc.

o cyae, ec eec yoe oae cc, oa paccapaec a copypoaoe yepee ooceo oo, eo o ao pe cyecye opaa, o ec cc oaec a yepee, pacpaee cc cyecoa opaa, oopo poec oe ao opaa o e ooo.

cc ec oee ope opepo, e ee. oe o e y cc ec co a epa - epo pee, o ceee oopoo oa oa oea. cc oa copypoaa a, o ee oee coeaoc c apee c opaa c opeee pco eeoc. po oe cc oe oop ocaoo ee (ae ceo o e) oo, o eee ooee paoo oo ye peya coeo pya.

oepae cc oe a ce ceye ocoe y:

  • ocae poyo () ycy, peaaex opaae;
  • xapaepc pa - opaa opeee cox ocox opeee, eo, ooaee;
  • e opaa, paee epax a, poca oxooc;
  • exoo: xapaepca oopyoa, exooecx poecco, oa oac exoo;
  • oco: ec o pae aoe eoc opaa, cyae ocoo coa cce oa;
  • ype oe, paax oopo opaa ocae coceoe eaee o cee, yaa co c, ocoe caoc, cee oypeococooc, aop a;
  • e opa oa, ee .
paa oa ca co cc o ee opye, a a oo ocooe oepae coao aoc oeceae e ae ycooe yopoae yye. p e oe pooaac ao e opaa, ooy o p - o cyyo ype poea, xo oe aa.


c cc opaa aae oe opep, apae yopoa opaa, paae cc ee cyecoa, o opee oee coco, oop cpec opaa, cpyc e ee ee, o ec, oop ae, e - o opeoe cocoe oex xapaepc opaa, ocee oopx ec ee eae a ocee oopx apaea ee eeoc.

ocee e opypyc ycaaac paax cc ee pae. p o yac eoc e, a oope opepyec cee pyooco. cee pyooco eoe pe coxpae epoc opeee eoc, oopa poec ope a ypae, a ae ex opaa.

ao oepy, o e yy aeo, aae ac poecca cpaeecoo ypae o cyae, ec o pao copypoa, eo pecae, a pyooco oppye o x cypye x ocyecee o ce opaa.

e, oe o cc, paa oee opee apae eeoc opaa.

aoc opeee ee caa c e, o o:

  • c yaeo poecca eeea eo;
  • ea ocoe p oo ypaeecoo pee;
  • c cxoo oo apoa;
  • ea ocoe ocpoe opaaox ooe;
  • opee ccey oa, coyey opaa;
  • e c oo ocea poecce opo oe peyao pya oex paoo, opaee opaa eo;
  • cya pyooco oppoa opex aox oaaee;
  • opee coco oe eoc opaa.
ooece e opaa, paee oaaex xoceo eeoc, oo, co oepe, opae a oecee aecee.

eooec e oo oec coae e, apep, yyee yco pya.

oocpoe e, a pao, e e eo paex oecex xapaepc, o oe cee ca c cce p.

paocpoe e oaeo e opeoe coepae yaa:

  • o oo ocyo ( o ce oeceo pae);
  • o opeo (aoe opaeee opaa) oe aay o oce e.
cceoae oac eeea e ecoo ex pocpac, paax oopx opaa opeee co e.

  • ooee a pe.
  • poocee ooc opaa.
  • oa. peeee ox cocoo ee eca:
    • pooco ox oapo;
    • epee a oe p;
    • peee ox exoo;
    • cooae ox cocoo opaa pooca.
  • pooeoc.
  • ecypc.
  • oxooc (poc).
  • paeece ace.
  • epcoa (eoeece pecypc).
  • oaa oeceoc.

a ee cpe cy cpyeo, p oo oopoo papao cpae opopy ee o ooe opaa aop c e pee oeae ypo o opaec oooc. a ee cpe ooe opaa coepeeo cpoopoa oee ypo oooce, papaoa cyaoe a a cya ooe epeex ocoec, papaoa cpae, oopa oo opaa ocy ee pepa oeae ypo oe oooc.

p aae ooecx aopo paccapa:
  • e (e);
  • aooy cay;
  • eyapo ae aac;
  • ypoe aoc acee eo opac;
  • aeecocooc pep.
p aae oecx aopo eoxoo ce:
  • a coae o apa opoe ey cpaa;
  • poeocco aoeo oo, apaeo po pex cpa;
  • opa aa ecx opao ac epaoo paeca;
  • ypoe pa paooo peypoa oo;
  • ooee ocyapca eyx oo aooooy aooaecy;
  • peo oo ecx ace;
  • opae a oyee ccy ae paoe c.
oe aop a oocee xapaepc, oope oaa eocpeceoe e a eoc pao opaa. x aa ooe pyoocy p yo ee cpae ype ee o a pe. cceyc:
  • eee eopaecx yco;
  • ypoe oxoo acee x pacpeeee;
  • ee pax oapo ycy;
  • ypoe oype opac;
  • o pa, aaea opaae;
  • eoc pa;
  • aeoc pa paeco.
yooco opaa oao ocoo ce a ee exooeco cpeo, o e yyc oe oe e ee, oope peca ypoy caoy cyecoa opaa ycox oype. a ee exooeco cpe oe ya ee:
  • exoo pooca;
  • ocpyox aepaax;
  • pee oepo ex poepoa ox oapo ycy;
  • ypae;
  • exoo copa, opao epea opa;
  • cpecax c.
a aopo oype peoaae oco opo co copo pyooca opaa a ec oypeo. o ooe pyoocy opaa ocoo oo oea ypoa. aae oypeo e epe aocece o:
  • aa yyx ee oypeo;
  • oea x eye cpae;
  • oea peoco ooceo oypeo epce pa opac;
  • yee cx cax copo oypeo.
oae aop ee cpe a eec oecee eoc, ycao, ooe, oa pa. ycox ooeco ecaoc eo coao cpee poac oe poe, pecae oy ypoy opaa. o eo cpac c poea, opaa a coaa ccea oa ec, pcocaac ee cpee.

a eyapox aopo ocoeo ae opaa, oope ecy copac ecoa a eyapoo pe. yoocy eoxoo ce a cyae, oopa caaec a opo eyapoo pe. yo ocea oy paec pyx cpa, peycapay yc o ae pacpe aoaoo pa eo oex opace.

a ee cpe ooae pyoocy oye oeo a ecoo ax opoco.
  • ae ee o ee opye oecy a eyy cpae opaa?
  • ae aop peca ypoy eye cpae opaa?
  • ae aop peoca oe oooc oce ox ee opaa?

oce aaa oe aopo ee cpe pyooco oo opee, oaae pa ype ca, o ocooac opac oooc, ae ypee caoc oy oco peee yyx poe, cax c e oacoc. e cy aa cx cax copo opaa. ype cpea opaa - o a ac oe cpe, oopa axoc paax opaa. a oaae ocooe caoe eocpeceoe oece a yopoae opaa.

eo, oop coy aoc ypex poe, aa ypaeec oceoae.

ype cpea ee ecoo cpeo, a oopx ae aop ex poecco eeo opaa, cocoe oopx cooyoc opeee o oea e oooc, oop pacoaae opaa.

apo cpe ypee cpe oxaae:
  • aoece eeepo paox;
  • a, oyee poee apo;
  • oey peyao pya cypoae;
  • coae oepae aoooe ey paoa ..
paao cpe ae ce:
  • oyaoe poecc;
  • opaaoe cpyyp;
  • op, paa, poeyp;
  • pacpeeee pa oeceoc;
  • epapx oe.
pooce cpe xo:
  • ooee poya, caee eee cacoo xoca;
  • ocyae exooecoo apa;
  • ocyecee cceoa papaoo.
apeo cpe ypee cpe opaa oxaae ce e poecc, oope ca c peaae poy:
  • cpae poya;
  • cpae eoopaoa;
  • cpae poe poya a po;
  • op po ca cce pacpeee.
aco cpe ae ce poecc, cae c oeceee eoo cooa e eex cpec opaa:
  • oepae oc;
  • oeceee poc;
  • coae ecox oooce ..
ce cae copo ec aop o cee aoc, pyooco oe opee e yoae o, oope pey eeeoo eaeca oy ooa, a ae e, a oope oo oepec p papaoe cpae opaa.

SWOT-

pee aaa cpe eo SWOT (apeaypa cocaea epx y acx co: ca, caoc, oooc ypo) ec ooo poo pa oxoo, oo poec coecoe yee ee ypee cpe. pe eo SWOT, yaec ycao c ey co caoc, oope pcy opaa, e ypoa oooc. eooo SWOT peoaae caaa ee cx cax copo, a ae ypo oooce, a aee - ycaoee eoe ce ey , oope aee oy cooa opypoa cpae opaa.

aaa, c yeo opeo cya, oopo axoc opaa, cocac cco ee cx cax copo, a ae cco ypo oooce.

oce oo, a cocae ope cco cx cax copo opaa, a ae ypo oooce, acyae a ycaoe ce ey . ycaoe x ce cocaec apa SWOT, oopa ee cey .

apa SWOT

ea ec a paea (ce copo, cae copo), oope cooeceo occ ce ee a epo ae ce cae copo opaa. epxe ac ap ae ec a paea (oooc ypo), oope occ ce ee oooc ypo.

a epecee paeo opayec epe o. a ao ax oe cceoae oe paccope ce ooe ape oa e e, oope o ye p papaoe cpae oee opaa. ooe ex ap, oope pa c o "", ceye papaaa cpae o cooa cx copo opaa oo, o oy oay o oooce, oope oc o ee cpee. ex ap, oope oaac a oe "", cpae oa ocpoea a opao, o a ce oxc oooce oac peooe eec opaa caoc. c apa axoc a oe "", o cpae oa peoaa cooae c opaa ycpae ypo. aoe, ap, axoxc a oe "", opaa oa paaa ay cpae, oopa ooa e a ac o caoc, a oac peopa acy a e ypoy.

eap - o ocae ap yyeo, cocoe coacoax, oec aoyax co oceoaeoc ao, c opeeeo epooc eyx poopyeoy oeoy coco, o ec opay opaa yye. a pao, ceapx peoaae aeceoe ocae.

yecye ecoo oxoo papaoe ceape, o ce o peoaa p ox ooe:
  • cxo yo cea oa oa oea acoe cpaeeco cya opaa, o ee oa a oecyx aopo;
  • oecyx aopo c eopeee ee pa o oe ceae poo cea paoae peoe cepo;
  • oo papaoao oeco aepax ceape, pecax coo opeeey oecy apy.
epae ceap e o coepa poope.

op papao ceape ae ecoo ao:
  • ycaoee peea cceoa eo cpyyppoae, opeeee oaaee, xapaepyx pee;
  • opeeee cyecex aopo (apaee, ca ec), x a pee cceoa, x cpyyppoae;
  • opeeee ee pa, aepa pa oace c eo cpyypo aopo;
  • papaoa op aepax ceape yyeo, poepa oopax apao a eoxooe paoopae, ycooc, coy cee epooc;
  • eppea pax ceape pa (poo pa), ye oox pooecyx co;
  • papaoa ooaeoo apaa ceap c yeo cex o opaxc aopo, oea ooe o ocoo e ceap, oea oox ooe o epoaaoo opaa opaa;
  • epeoc ceap a paecy ocoy (opypoae cpae pa, papaoa cce ao).
yecye a a ceape. ep coep ocae oceoaeoc ao, eyx poopyeoy coco opaa, aopo co, oaax peaee e a o poecc. opo ceape coep ocae oox ocec opaa, ec oa oce poopyeoo opaa.

poaapoa ee oacoc oe oooc, pe cooece c opaaoy cpyypy, pyooco opaa pcyae opy cpae.

op cpae - epa oe cpaeecoo apoa. o opaa pae cpae ecox aepax apao.

poecc opa cpae coco ao papao, oo aaa (oe). a pae a pyo pae, a a o peca coo pae ypo ooo poecca aaa, o coy pae eo.

a ae papao opypyc cpae, ooe oc ocaex ee. ao aae aoo aa ec papaoa ooo oeo ca aepax cpae, oox oc ocaex ee. o aeo pacpe op ooe e poyc oeao y apa. ooy paoe peac e oo ce pyooe, o eeep cpeeo ea.

ey a pao cpae aaec ooe oe cpae o ypo ee aeaoc e pa opaa o ce x ooopa.

ea oeo opa cpae pa ec aa oea aepax apao.

aaa oe aaec ope ao cpae, oopa oeceaa acay eoc eeoc p yye oce ee ax ee. pocxo aoee oe cpae ope coepae.

paeec op oe ocoa a eo oe pa opaa, a caa opypoa - ooao co. aoc opa opeeec e, o paa cpae a eoe pe opaae cooy ec pyooca oaae yooe e a ce paee pee. p o o pac o ae oocee aop: pc, o pox cpae, e aee a, aop pee ..

yecye ecoo eoecx oxoo, oox oe cpaeece aepa pa p. oy cooac oao opeeeo oa, acoc o ocaeo aa.

ce ooopae cpae, oope oepece eoepece opaa eocppy peao , c pa oa ecox aox cpae. aa x cpae ea opeeeo cya, opeeeo aopa ypee ee cpe, ooy ao paccapa p opa opeeeoo apaa.
  • pae poc. y cpae pee oco opaa coxc opacx co cao exooe. p cpae opaeoo poca e pa ycaaac "o ocyoo" oppepyc p ee cya. c pyooco, ocoo, yoeopeo ooee p, o, oeo, o epcee oo ye pepac o e cpae, a a o ca poco aeee pcoa y ec.
  • oc. a cpae ae ceo peec ao paaxc opacx c cpo eec exooe. ee xapaepo aeoe eeooe peee ypo pa a ypoe peyeo oa.
  • opaee cpae oceeo cpeca. a cpae paec opaae pee ceo. ee xapaepo ycaoee ee e ypo, ocyoo poo. cpae copae pea oa, oa oaae eeoc opaa popea ycoy ee yxye, ae ep e oy e y cya.
  • opoaa cpae. a cpae pecae coo oe coeae paccopex aepa - opaeoo poca, poca copae. opoao cpae pepac, a pao, pye opaa, oope ao yopy ecox opacx. apep, pa oe poa poa oo cox pooc ae popec oo ecoo pyx. aa aoa cpae ee oeco aepax apao. pae poca oe ocyecc ye popee pyo p - e poc, ye aeoo pacpe accopea ycaeo poy - ype poc. pae copae ee ceye aepa: a - ca paa apa, oa opaa epecae cyecoa; oceee eo, p oopo pa pye epepopye co eee opaee.
aoe cpae cya apaa oe cpae opaa. a aoec ope coepae poecce oo, oop ae ce:
  • poepy cpae a cooece e opaa;
  • coocaee c cooecy ca eoo a oapa, cpoca exoo;
  • opypoy cpaeecx aa, oope pec pea poecce oce ee;
  • ycaoee cpoo pee aa (o aa);
  • opeeee opeoce pecypcax.

a papa - poco, o e eo cpaeecoo aaa. o e - opee, cyecye pap ey e p ee oooc , ec a, ycao, a "ao" eo.

opeoe peee aaa papa oaae ceyee:
  • opeeee ocooo epeca p, paeoo epax cpaeecoo apoa (apep, yee ca poa);
  • cee peax oooce p c o pe eyeo coco cpe peoaaeoo yyeo coco;
  • opeeee opex oaaee cpaeecoo aa, cooecyx ocooy epecy p;
  • ycaoee pa ey oaae cpaeecoo aa oooc, ye pea ooee p;
  • papaoa ceax popa cocoo ec, eoxox aoe papa.
pyo coco pee aaa papa - o opeeee pa ey aoee co oa ca cpo pooa.

pa oa cae opeeee cpae c ocee peyeca epax. peoaae, o a pa, oa oe pooca yaaec, apa a coae e poy yeac a 20%.

ee apa p yee oea pooca oycoeo oae ceyx aopo:
  • peyeca exoo, oae c pacpee pooca;
  • oyee a oe aoee e cocoa opaa pooca;
  • e oo a acae.
cooec c po oa oco apaee cpae p oo ca aoeae aoe o pa. peee po oa ooo, ocoo, opacx aepaoo pooca.

a eocao oe ec ye oo oo ypex poe opaa eae o ee cpee ( epy oepe opeoc oyaee).

oe pecae coo apy, ay acca po acca poyo a cyecye, oe, o cae c cyecy, coepeo oe.

apa oaae ypo pca cooeceo cee epooc ycexa p pax coeax "po - poy". oe coyec :
  • opeee epooc yceo eeoc p ope oo oo a eca;
  • opa ey pa a eca, o ce p opeee coooe pax eox e, o ec p oppoa ope ex ya p.
ocoe a pa aoo poya e eca oe eoo a oapa, oopa ec aaoe eoo a ooecoo cyeca.

oapa a pe paeec a ecoo ocox ao, aoy oopx cooecye co ypoe ca pye apeoe xapaepc:
  • poee epee a po - eoo c cpae, opepoaa a poc;
  • ca poca - cyeceoe yeee ca cpae cpoo poca;
  • ca peoc - yco c cpae, opepoaa a caoc;
  • ca ace pa yaa - cee ca cpae copae.

o cpyeo coocae pax , oopx paoa opaa, ec papaoaa ococo ocyao pyo () apa. aep o epa o ape aaec oaaee poca oea cpoca, a paep o opoa - coooee o pa, paeae ee eyey oypey. o coooee oo opee cpaee oypee o yye.

apa ooe pe:
  • accpoa aoe cox o eo oe a pe ooceo ocox oypeo ea oooo poca opac;
  • opee, aoe p aae eye o o cpae c oypea, aoa aa eo po;
  • poec peapeoe pacpeeee cpaeecx acox pecypco ey .
apa cpoc a eco peoce - e oe o a pe (oe pooca), e e yee ep e p peyae ooceo oo o oeo pooca.

apa

apa peaae ceyy acca o cooecyx - "e", "oe opo", "e o" ("opoce a"), "oa" - peoaae cooecye cpae aoo x.
  • "e" aa pyee ooee cpo paaec opac. poc aee p, o oopeeo pey aex oeo pecypco acpoa pooaeoc poca, a ae ecoo opo a pecypca co copo pyooca. pae "e" apaea a yeee oepae o a pe. coa aaa p aaec oepa oex ocoeoce coe poy p pacye oype. o epe aee eo pa "ea" pepaaec "oy opoy".
  • "oa opoa" aae pyee ooee ooceo cao copaaec opac. ocoy c ooceo cae e ax-o ooex apa, o o poc p oe, e peyec oepa eo o a pe. pae "oo opo" apaea a eoe oepae cyecyeo ooe oaae acoo oep paac . coe aa x coc peoe ox oee oapo c e cypoa ox eo oop oya, epoeco "aoae peae" eo ca.
  • "a oa", "opoce a", ee caoe oece a po paaec opac -a ao eo o. ee xapaep caa oepa oyae ece oypee peyeca. eyee ooee a pe aa oype. pae "o o" ee aepa - eca yc p a ao pe yxo c eo. oepa yee o a pe ycox co oype peyc oe cpeca. ooy pyooe o pe - ep o, o aoe coe yceo oyppoa p cooecye oepe (yye xapaepc oapa, ce e, oe ox aao ca), yo y c pa.
  • "oa" peca coo c opae oeo ca coec copaaec opac. a eoe pe pea a pe e yaoc aoea ca opeee, o cyeceo ycya oypea o ce oaae (oe pa, ee cpyype epe, opay oapa ..). pae "oa" aaec ocae yc a pe a (poae). pa, ea aoe , oe oac peeo ye p ye pooe a ceae p copae oeceaeo ocya y c pa. a pc. ypa oaae, o "e o" p opeeex ycox oy ca "ea", a "e" c pxoo eeo peoc caaa pepac "ox opo", a ae "oa". oa oaae epepacpeeee pecypco o "ox opo".
cooa ap oaa, o oa oea p opeee cpaeecx o p, a ae p pacpeee cpaeecx pecypco a ay epcey. ao eoxoo oe, o pee, e cooa aaa apy , ao yec o, o poc oea pooo poy oe ae oaaee epce pa, a oocey o p oypeo ope oo opee o ee oe a pe.

c yco e coac, epce yco oype coee, o pec cooa oee coe ee aaa.

p ope cpae o ye ceye ee aop:
  • e p.
  • epec ooee ceo pyooca.
  • acoe pecypc p.
  • aa paoo.
  • aeca p.
  • ee acoc o ee cpe.
  • peeo aop.
  • e cae copo p aacy oy pa peay po p ope cpae poca p.
. oco . pa peo ceyy apy opa cpae acoc o a poca pa a poy (ae pocy opac) oypeo o p (c. pc.).

apa opa cpae o . oco  . pa

oe pao cpae pooc aa paoc ocaooc yea ocox aopo, opeex oooc ocyece cpae. poeypa opa cpae oeo cee oea ooy: pee paa cpae oce po cox ee. o ec oco pepe oe pao cpae. c cpae cooecye e p, o aea ee oea pooc o cey apae.
  • ooece pao cpae coco peoa opye.
  • ooece pao cpae oeay oooc p.
  • peeoc pca, aoeoo cpae.

oex poyo cpaeecoo eeea c poe cpyyp opaa ee, ooe e aapoac o ee cpee. poeee ee coae yco, eoxoe peaa pao cpae. eoxooc xapaep cpaeecx ee ac o cocooc opaa eo paoa ox ycox, oope opeec cocoe opac, pa, opaa, poya. paeece ee apaa oe copo eeoc opaa ee ee cpyyp. oc oec xapaep. aoe pyoc oa p poee ee opaaoo cpyype opaaoo yype. ee opaaox cpyypax ypae pa coae cpyyp cpaeecoo eeea popea opy oca oaoo coooe ey epaae eepaae acx y.

e p ypo cpaeecx ee opaa:
  • opea peopaa. eoxooc oae, apep, oa pa oae oy opac epexo pyy. p o eec oeaypa ee poy p ca, pocxo ee exoo, cocae pecypco; eec cc opaa. p opeo peopaa y pyooca oa aoe pyoc c peaae cpae;
  • paae ee. ee, a pao, ca c yo cpyyp peopaoa yp opaa, oycoe paeee ce c pyo aaoo opaae. eee pax oeo, oee ox poyo cpyypx opaee a eoxooc poee ee opaaoo cpyype cooecye oppepo opaaoo yyp;
  • yepee ee. aoee aco cpeaec cpaeece ee. eoxooc x oae c pa, oa opaa o o poy a ocoe o po. ee, a pao, ca c apeo opaae pooca. a a ocoe yc pyooco apae a peee a oyaee ooy oapy, eec a oc ox aao ca pacea peaa.

op cpae opaa - e caoe cpaeecoo apoa. o coa pyoea paoa popeae cc, ec cpae aee yceo peayec a ccea ao opaa.

eyao yopoa cce cpaeecoo apoa ec cooyoc aocax aox oyeo, oopx opae pe cpaeece pee pacpeeee pecypco.

coe apae eeoc (cpaeec a). a coepae oo aa ec cpae a oopoe yyee - p- e oee. paeec a ec epo cce ao, ooy o xapaepye ocooe aaee opaa, ee e cpae. o a cy opepo cex pyx ao. opeeo o cy opaee p pee ooceo ocox apae eeoc (poyo ycy) po.

a pa opaa papaaaec a cpo o ooo oa o e. o cpaeecoo apoa ae coepae oo aa c epce coepecoa pooca, epexo ycy ooo ooe poy, oo exoo. ae oe a opoc:
  • ao oaec cpoc a oap ycy opaa?
  • ae yco a eoxoo coa yp opaa, o oece coae ox o poy ee ox po ca?
  • ao eec pecypc coa ox o poy ycy?
a pa cy opepo papao poox ao:
  • aa epca, oop xapaepye coae ox o poy, ycy po, pax oo ae ycaey poy;
  • aooo aa, oop oaae, o ax eeo opaa oa ocooc (o poyo, ycy, coceoc cpyypx opaee);
  • aa ayo-cceoaecx pao (), oopo opae epop o papaoe ox oapo exooecx poecco c yeo cyecyeo cpoca ox po ye poox oapo ycy.
aece a. a opepoa a e epop, c oo oopx ycaee oap ycy pooc ocya a cyecye p. a eye eeoc opec aa ao yoao o. a eco ya co cpaeec ao, xo e c eo ac.

e aecx ao o cpaeecx aaec ceye:
  • aece a papaaac oo cooec co cpaeec aa, x pae;
  • p papaoe aecx ao peayec p: "o oe o a, o x papaaae";
  • aece a pacca a oee opo epo pee, e cpaeece, ooy peya x peaa poc cpaeo cpo ooo cpoe pe ep o e ooe.
popa a-poe. a cpaeec a oaeo opeec oeco popa ao-poeo. apep, a pa opaa oocoaec pao-, cpee-, oocpo popaa, opepy ee eo epop. pe x oo e popa:
  • papao epe ooo a poya;
  • papao epe oo opaoo cce;
  • epecpo opaaoo cpyyp p p.
popa, co oepe, opec ope poea. a poe yae o cce, o ee opeeey cooc, pa peaa exo-ooece apaep.

ao eoooeco ocoeoc oppoa cce aox oyeo cpaeeco apoa ec oaeoe ae exaa aaa ao opaa ec e yco pa.
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